The "empty nest" of past generations, in which the kids are grown up and middle-aged adults have more time to themselves, has been replaced in
According to a new study by researchers at
An economic recession and tough job market has made it hard on young adults to start their careers and families. At the same time, many older people are living longer, which adds new and unanticipated needs that their children often must step up to assist with.
The end result, researchers suggest, are "empty nest" plans that often have to be put on hold, and a mixed bag of emotions, ranging from joy and "happy-to-help" to uncertainty, frustration and exhaustion.
"We mostly found very positive feelings about adults helping their children in the emerging adulthood stage of life, from around ages 18 to 30," said
"Feelings about helping parents weren't so much negative as just filled with more angst and uncertainty," Hooker said. "As a society we still don't socialize people to expect to be taking on a parent-caring role, even though most of us will at some point in our lives. The average middle-aged couple has more parents than children."
The findings of this research were just published in the
Various social, economic, and cultural forces have combined to radically challenge the traditional concept of an empty nest, the scientists said. The recession that began in 2008 yielded record unemployment, substantial stock market losses, lower home values and increased demand for higher levels of education.
Around the same time, advances in health care and life expectancy have made it possible for many adults to live far longer than they used to - although not always in good health, and often needing extensive care or assistance.
This study concluded that most middle-aged parents with young adult children are fairly happy to help them out, and they understand that getting started in life is simply more difficult now. Some research has suggested that age 25 is the new 22; that substantially more parents now don't even expect their kids to be financially independent in their early 20s, and don't mind helping them through some difficult times.
But the response to helping adult parents who, at the same time, need increasing amounts of assistance is not as uniformly positive, the study found - it can be seen as both a joy and a burden, and in any case was not something most middle-aged adults anticipated.
"With the kids, it's easy," is a general purpose reaction. With aging parents, it isn't.
"My grandparents died younger, so my parents didn't cope with another generation," one study participant said.
Many middle-aged people said it was difficult to make any plans, due to disruptions and uncertainty about a parent's health at any point in time.
And most said they we're willing to help their aging parents, but a sense of being time-starved was a frequent theme.