He rests his cane against the breakfront and gingerly takes a seat at the dining room table in the Church Hill home. Surrounded by a half-dozen other volunteers half his age, he begins making calls to registered voters on behalf of Hillary Clinton.
"Hello, may I speak to Donna, please?" the soft-spoken volunteer asks in a raspy voice that barely registers above a whisper. "This is Henry Marsh, calling from Democratic headquarters."
For the last few months, Marsh, 83, a former civil rights lawyer, mayor of Richmond, state senator for 22 years, and current ABC Board member - has been showing up at phone banks and Clinton's Richmond campaign offices twice a week to do the grunt work of getting out the vote.
"This is an important election," Marsh said. "Every vote counts."
Both major parties are battling for Virginia, as national campaigns and state parties mobilize volunteers to make calls, knock on doors and get out the vote in the days before Americans choose their next president.
Five candidates are on the ballot in Virginia on Tuesday - Clinton, Republican Donald Trump, Libertarian Gary Johnson, Green Party nominee Jill Stein and independent Evan McMullin.
Stein is scheduled to speak Sunday in a 7 p.m. forum at the University of Mary Washington in Fredericksburg. Sen. Tim Kaine, D-Va., will appear at a homecoming rally in Richmond on Monday evening before voting at his precinct on Tuesday. As yet, none of the other presidential campaigns has announced additional visits to Virginia.
With the focus now on getting out the vote, both major parties have built large operations to make sure their supporters get to the polls.
In 2008, Barack Obama became the first Democratic presidential nominee to win Virginia since President Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Obama carried Virginia again in 2012.
Analysts credited a sophisticated, microtargeted ground game deployed by Democrats that maximized social media and shoe leather and neighborhood connections to identify voters and get them to the polls.
Virginia Republicans say they have upped their ground game in the state.
"The Republican Party of Virginia has been working hand in hand with the Republican National Committee for almost two years now, growing and developing our field efforts," RPV Chairman John Whitbeck announced earlier this fall. "This is, hands down, the best ground game I've ever seen."
Republicans have 65 paid staff members in 19 offices, in addition to 250 neighborhood team leaders and 400 "core team members" in charge of organizing and getting out the vote in precincts, according to Republican National Committee spokesman Garren Shipley.
Democrats have 34 offices across the state, including five in the Richmond area. The Clinton camp has also hosted organizing events daily in every region of the state, including phone banks, voter registration and door-to-door canvassing.
Campaign officials said more than 40,000 volunteers in Virginia have taken part in the campaign, knocking on more than 1 million doors and making more than 5.5 million phone calls to Virginia voters.
"We have a superior ground game, more staff and volunteers, more field offices, better training, and better data," said Democratic Party of Virginia Chairwoman Susan Swecker.
The Trump and Clinton campaigns are deploying surrogates to Virginia and other battleground states in the late going.
Retired Army Lt. Gen. Joseph Keith Kellogg, one of Trump's foreign policy advisers, is scheduled to appear in Virginia today, according to the Republican's campaign.
Star Jones, a lawyer and former host on "The View," made five stops in Hampton on Wednesday and Thursday for Clinton and Kaine. Former Maryland Gov. Martin O'Malley, who unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination, was scheduled to greet Clinton-Kaine volunteers on Thursday at six Democratic campaign offices in Hampton Roads and the Richmond area.
Clinton leads in Virginia by an average of 3.4 percentage points, according to Real Clear Politics.
In an Oct. 28 Virginia tracking poll from the Wason Center at Christopher Newport University, Clinton received 46 percent to Trump's 39 percent, but CNU found that the race had tightened. In the previous week's CNU poll, Clinton received 45 percent to Trump's 33, suggesting Trump is pulling support from independent voters and those who previously supported the Libertarian candidate, said CNU political science professor Quentin Kidd, head of the Wason Center.
Kidd said it appears that Clinton's ground operation "is every bit what the Obama operation was in 2012. They have opened dozens of field offices and hired dozens of staff," he said.
In Virginia, where Republicans have not won a statewide race since 2009, Clinton also has some insurance - the presence of Kaine as Clinton's running mate.
The Trump campaign, while initially not organized well in the commonwealth, according to Kidd, has been ramping up of late, largely with the help of the Republican Party of Virginia and money from the campaign.
"It looks like the Trump field operation is not quite what (2012 Republican presidential nominee Mitt) Romney's was, but they're trying really hard, really late."
While the Trump and Clinton campaigns are running TV ads in Virginia in the last two weeks, Trump is spending far more in the state's major markets, according to the Virginia Public Access Project, a nonpartisan tracker of money in state politics.
Clinton and Trump also are running national ads that viewers have seen in Virginia on cable TV and on broadcasts such as Wednesday night's Game 7 of the World Series.
Purchases of air time in Virginia by outside groups during the last two weeks of the campaign are down dramatically from 2012, according to VPAP.
In the two weeks before the November 2012 election, outside groups bought $10.8 million in air time in the state's top four TV markets. Through Wednesday, the comparable figure this year was $880,000.
VPAP notes that one factor in the difference is that Virginia had a U.S. Senate race in 2012 between Kaine and Republican George Allen, and it has no Senate race this year.
Trump also has released a radio ad featuring Liberty University President Jerry Falwell Jr. that is slated to run on Christian radio stations in Virginia and 10 other battleground states. Falwell urges voters: "Stand up for our shared Christian values. Stand with me and vote Donald Trump for president."
Turnout is key
"I think Trump thinks Virginia is winnable for him, and Clinton thinks it isn't," said Kidd, of CNU.
"Election Day is going to really surprise Clinton, or confirm what they've been thinking all along. They're counting on their ground game to bring out a coalition that will match 2012 numbers, even if it doesn't look the same."
But Kidd said the early voter turnout and registration numbers in Virginia cities, typically strongholds of Democratic support, are not as great as they were in 2008 and 2012. He said the Clinton campaign may be having greater difficulty in mobilizing African-Americans who turned out in the last two presidential elections, while their numbers are good in suburban areas and Northern Virginia.
Despite the polarizing nature of the election, and the low approval ratings for Clinton and Trump, both campaigns dismiss the notion of an enthusiasm gap. Instead, they are expecting record turnout, pointing to increases in voter registration that exceed 2008, and spikes in absentee voting statewide.
Kidd predicts turnout in the state to come in at around 60 percent. That would be a significant drop from the 2012 presidential election, when 71.78 percent of the state's voters cast ballots.
He said recent research suggests that Republican voters are "a little more excited about Trump than they're being given credit for," and said the result is likely to be closer than polling has indicated.
He noted that Republicans broke late for Ken Cuccinelli in Virginia's 2013 campaign for governor, resulting in a narrow loss to Democrat Terry McAuliffe. Similarly, in 2014, Republicans broke late for former Republican National Committee chairman Ed Gillespie, who nearly upset Sen. Mark Warner, D-Va.
"But as you know, closeness only counts in horseshoes and hand grenades," Kidd said. "A win is a win, whether it's by 4 or 5, or 2 or 3."